Coluracetam (MKC-231) was first created and introduced to the scientific community in Japan in the early 1990s. These clinical trials have identified coluracetam as a novel drug that functions through acting as a choline uptake enhancer influencing some important mechanisms related to memory and learning. For this reason, initial studies on coluracetam focused on its ability to treat symptoms of Alzheimer’s disease. Its proposed rehabilitative effects prompted other researchers to evaluate its effects on anxiety and depression    .
Coluracetam (MKC-231) was first created and introduced to the scientific community in Japan in the early 1990s. These clinical trials have identified coluracetam as a novel drug that functions through acting as a choline uptake enhancer influencing some important mechanisms related to memory and learning. For this reason, initial studies on coluracetam focused on its ability to treat symptoms of Alzheimer’s disease. Its proposed rehabilitative effects prompted other researchers to evaluate its effects on anxiety and depression    .Key Findings
Clinical trials have shown that coluracetam promotes the following beneficial effects:
- Improvement in learning and learning impairment  
- Helps with the treatment of Alzheimer’s disease 
- Has neuroprotective properties 
- May help in the treatment of schizophrenia 
- Ameliorates deficits on working memory 
Please note: This article is for informational purposes only. Only buy Coluracetam for research. We do not encourage intake of Coluracetam or any other nootropic substance listed/discussed/sold on this site.
Coluracetam is a choline uptake enhancer. It is also a derivative of piracetam – the first ever created nootropic drug. Numerous studies have shown its versatility in producing a range of benefits such as learning, learning and working improvement, neuroprotection, and treatment of Alzheimer’s disease and schizophrenia. Dosing studies further revealed that daily repeated doses enhance its effects amongst its users      .
The effects of coluracetam towards learning were exemplified in a 2007 study wherein single oral doses were administered to rats treated with AF64A. In this specific study, coluracetam was repeatedly administered to rats. AF64A was used to induce learning impairment amongst the study subjects, after which, they were given a water-maze task. Analysis of the results revealed that coluracetam greatly improved cognitive function within 24 hours. Repeated administration was also revealed to improve high affinity choline uptake indicating that MKC-231 may promote long-lasting positive effects in cognition . This positive result was reinforced by a similar study in which the effects of coluracetam were compared to that of tacrine – an acetylcholinesterase inhibitor. The subjects of this study were also treated with AF64A and were also given the same Morris water maze task. Learning deficits were greatly improved amongst rats administered with coluracetam without causing any undesirable adverse effects as compared to tacrine-administered subjects. This shows that coluracetam is truly a novel drug that promotes safe and efficient learning and learning deficit improvement when used in therapeutic doses  .
Alzheimer’s disease is a degenerative disorder that is exemplified cognitive function and memory deficits as well as increasing behavioral impairment and disturbances in daily living. Extensive studies on the brain revealed that decreased functioning of the cholinergic neural system plays an important role in this neurodegenerative disease. Hence, primary treatment involves the administration of cholinesterase inhibitors. However, the compliance with the use of these drugs is usually low because of its adverse effects including gastrointestinal disturbances. A review of literature revealed that coluracetam reverses the decrease in acetylcholine and high affinity choline uptake. It therefore acts similarly with acetylcholinesterse inhibitor which makes it a potent drug for treating Alzheimer’s disease . This mechanism is also the reason why it might help in treating schizophrenia and the cognitive dysfunctions associated with this neurological problem .
The ability of coluracetam in ameliorating working memory deficits were compared with two other nootropic drugs – tetrahydroaminoacridine and linopiridine. Subjects were treated with AF64A to promote memory deficit and decreased acetylcholine. Analysis of the results revealed that MKC-231 were more effective in improving memory deficits and levels of acetylcholine in the hippocampus as compared to that of tetrahydroaminoacridine and linopiridine  .
How does coluracetam work and why you should buy coluracetam?
The primary mechanism of coluracetam was associated to its ability to increase synthesis and release of acetylcholine in the hippocampus. Studies on the effects of coluracetam towards the levels of normal and AF64A treated rodents revealed that MKC-231 significantly increases high affinity choline uptake and acetylcholine production in vivo and in vitro. As a direct result, it is able to treat hypofunction of the cholinergic neural systems associated with memory and learning deficits, neuronal cytotoxicity, Alzheimer’s disease as well as schizophrenia . Its ability to upregulate high affinity choline uptake has been associated to its positive effects to CHT1 – a well-known high affinity choline transporter. Rapid increase of CHT1 helps facilitate the increase of high affinity choline uptake when its levels are significantly low . .
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